WXR-2001 Cold Weather Operations

Quick Facts


Continuing Education Units (CEUs)

Course is Part of this Program

Course Length
Self-Paced (Must be completed within 6 months)

Course Dates & Locations
Courses are online and can be started anytime.

Your registration will be handled by a secure payment system. Credit card information will not be saved.



Hazards and factors of operating in cold weather, ground operation considerations, ground deicing and anti-icing procedures and equipment, and airborne issues including aerodynamic effects of icing are covered in this course. Regulatory requirements are emphasized, including the use of current Hold-Over Tables (HOT) and associated inspections.

Who Should Attend

  • Experienced airline pilots
  • Pilots requiring initial or recurrent training

Course Objectives

Lesson 1: Hazards and Factors

  • Ground icing conditions
  • Critical surface contamination
  • Time and fuel savings
  • Icing related accidents
  • Aerodynamic effects of contamination
  • Effects on stall speed
  • Effects on pitch and lateral stability
  • Contamination effects on aircraft performance
  • Increases in aircraft weight and drag
  • Icing classification: snow, freezing, rain and hail
  • Rime, mixed, clear ice
  • Ground contamination

Lesson 2: Ground Operations

  • Certification requirements
  • Ground handling
  • Aircraft systems
  • Flight controls
  • Engine starting
  • Pilot-static systems
  • Ground maneuvering
  • Take-off performance
  • Derated / Flex thrust
  • Contaminated runways
  • Hydroplaning
  • Wet Runways
  • Quiz

Lesson 3: Ground De-Icing

  • Regulatory requirements
  • Critical Surface Inspection (CSI)
  • Allowable frost
  • Inspection considerations
  • Dry snow
  • Tactile inspections
  • Contamination removal
  • Freezing point depressants
  • Lowest Operational Usable Temperature (LOUT)
  • Types and uses of de-icing and anti-icing fluids
  • De-icing / anti-icing & anti-icing procedures
  • Hold Over Times (HOT)
  • HOT tables for composite surfaces
  • Use of Hold Over Tables (HOT)
  • Post De-icing Inspection (PDI)
  • HOT range
  • Post De-Icing Inspection (PDI)
  • HOT range
  • Pre-take-off Contamination (PCI)
  • Lapsed HOT
  • Quiz

LESSON 4: Airborne Operations

  • Engine run-up
  • Gear retraction
  • In-flight icing conditions
  • Anti-icing systems
  • Freezing precipitation
  • Aerodynamic effects of icing
  • Roll upset
  • Tail plane stall
  • Operational envelope
  • Fuel freeze
  • Landing distance
  • Runway excursions
  • Runway Condition Assessments
  • Contaminated Runways
  • Crosswind limitations
  • Cold temperature altimetry
  • Reduced visibility
  • Use of reverse thrust
  • Flap retraction 

Contact Us

Office of Professional Education, Worldwide Campus
1 Aerospace Boulevard
Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900

This is a self-guided online course; you will be able to complete this course at your own pace, from wherever you choose.